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Paraphrasing & quotations


Paraphrasing & quotations

When you cite a source in the body of your assignment you can either paraphrase or quote it.


If you do not know what paraphrasing is click here.

To reference a piece of paraphrasing from your source of information you need to include the surname of the author and year of publication. For example:

Morris (2010) continually stresses the importance of using a sketchbook in order to develop as an illustrator. 


To reference a quote from your source of information you need to include surname of the author and year of publication, the page number and "..." around the quote. For example:

Direct quotes
Morris (2010, p.69) asserts that "black waterproof Indian ink is the first choice of most illustrators".

If your quotation is longer than three lines, it should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented (from the left margin). Quotation marks are not required in such cases

Direct quotes longer than three lines  

Direct quotes longer than three lines

Morris (2010, p.88) describes how fashion illustrations changed over time to reflect popular culture:

    In the 'swinging sixties', youth culture was predominant, and being young, carefree and abandoned was the fashionable ideal.  The emergence of the teenager in the late fifties meant that fashion acquired a younger, modern look. Illustration poses altered from demure to witty and dynamic. However, the fashion illustrator had become less important than the photographer for magazines, so much so that photographers and models became celebrities in their own right.

In the reference list, reference both paraphrased and directly quoted items in the usual way:

Reference list
Morris, B. (2010) Fashion illustrator. 2nd edn. London: Laurence King Publishing.
This guide uses the UoB-Harvard system. Always consult your unit handbook or tutor to make sure you are using the correct system for the unit. Some subjects use other systems.
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University of Bedfordshire

A Guide to Referencing» Paraphrasing & quotations