What is a secondary reference?
A secondary reference is when you refer to a piece of work that was cited in a source that you have read – i.e. you did not read the original.
When writing an assignment, it is good practice to always use the original source of information whenever possible (the primary reference).
It is bad academic practice to habitually use secondary referencing. However, sometimes it will not be possible to get hold of a primary source (for example, because it is out of print). In such instances, it is possible to use a secondary reference.
You need to clearly indicate in the body of your assignment which source you have read and which source you have read about. To do this you need to include:
(i) Surname of the author(s) who wrote the secondary source
(ii) Year of publication of the secondary source
(iii) cited in
(iv) Surname of the author(s) who wrote the primary source
(v) Year of publication of the primary source
(vi) The page number (of your primary source) on which the secondary reference was discussed
There are a number of different ways this information can be formatted:
Gibbs (1988; cited in Reid, 2000, p.83) proposed a reflective cycle …
…..reflective cycle (Gibbs, 1988; cited in Reid, 2000, p.83).
|Reid, B. (2000) 'The role of mentor to aid reflective practice', in Burns, S. and Bulman, C. (eds.) Reflective practice in nursing: the growth of the professional practitioner, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science. pp.79-105|